So the focus of today is the basic research in the exact and natural sciences.
One of the strongest areas of the country’s science is astronomy. For the first time in the history of independent Uzbekistan Maidanak Observatory specialists discovered in October 2007, a new minor planet number 2007 TN2 in the solar system, which in 2009 got the number 210271assigned by the Harvard Minor Planet Center, and in 2010 this planet on the proposal of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan was named Samarqand. In 1994, the observatory registered a rare event - the fall of the comet Schumacher-Levy 9 on Jupiter, and places of collision of fragments of the broken comet were fixed.
We keep feeling pride for our scientists-mathematicians. Over the years, the basics of probability theory, mathematical statistics, and ordered algebras with respect to solving a number of urgent problems of queuing, epidemiology, aerodynamics, optimal control, stationary stochastic processes, quantum theory, and others got developed.
Our physics repeatedly reported on the achievements of global scale. They developed the foundations of the theory of nuclei of heavy elements, including three-stage uranium fission with the formation of magnesium isotope, optical solitons in condensed systems, ion-beam sputtering in the form of nanoclusters, radiation coloration of crystals, and others. They are also the first in the world using concentrated solar energy produced resistant materials with improved superconducting up to 110-150 Kelvin degrees with transition temperature to the superconducting state.
By the way, team of scientists from the Physical-Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the work on the creation and study of the properties of promising semiconductor materials based on solid solutions was awarded in 2007 the State Prize of Uzbekistan in the field of science and technology.
In the field of chemistry, our scientists have discovered a new pattern in modern supramolecular chemistry, which establishes the dependence of a certain class of substances structure from the conditions of their formation. The results obtained allow on the basis of the rules set out by scientists to design new compounds with desired properties for use in various sectors and industries.
A new scientific direction - adsorption-energy stoichiometry created, as well as new concepts developed and semi-empirical and theoretical equations produced of isotherms and differential heats of adsorption, energy, kinetic, molecular and structural criteria established for the study of the mechanism of adsorption and catalytic reactions.
The Institute of Plant Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan for the first time prepared and issued in English a 10-volume unique reference book ‘Natural Compounds (plant resources, structure and properties).’
The greatest scientific achievement in the cotton industry of the country was the creation for the first time with the help of the developed gene-knockout technology a unique transgenic cotton cultivar (four new species, Porloq 1 - Porloq 4 series), which has an extensive root system, a wide range of economically useful traits such as high yield length, high quality fibers (type 1-2), precocity, salt tolerance, and others. A joint patent is getting prepared with the University of Texas, US (Uzbekistan share is 70%).
Work of the team of scientists-breeders from the Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the creation of new varieties of cotton was awarded in 2011 the State Prize in the field of science and technology.
In the field of seismology there was created a four-stage ‘Geophysical model of earthquake preparation processes, based on the results of long-term monitoring of seismoprognostic observations in geodynamic polygons’, a map created of general seismic zoning and methodology for the preparation of strong earthquakes in Uzbekistan. These studies are important in the development of national measures to prevent threats and mitigate the impact of earthquakes in large cities and densely populated areas of Uzbekistan.
And in the field of geology the theoretical foundations were created of the new direction of statistical metallogenic analysis, the formation and placement justified of deposits of gold, copper, platinum group metals, tungsten, and rare metals, which are essential for the further development of the mineral resource base in Uzbekistan.