According to the World Health Organization, the current prevalence of this disease accounts for about 347 million people, and this figure is increasing every year. The diabetes mellitus takes the third place among the causes of death after cardiovascular and oncologic diseases. Recently, the disease has been recognized as a "non-infectious epidemic" and, if effective measures are not taken, by the middle of the twentieth century every second person on the planet will suffer them. All endeavors are currently aimed at treating or compensating for the violation of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with an already existing set of symptoms, that means when the disease has already been formed.
The group of scientists of the Tashkent Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians, the Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Endocrinology Center and the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute has been working on the elaboration of new methods for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus for several years under the Professor Pavel Chernysh’s supervision. One of their latest patented developments is a new diagnostic method based on the hypothesis put forward by them, according to which the organism of a healthy person predisposed to the decease progress for the type 2 diabetes, reacts to the stress in the same way as a sick person.
As you know, the stress is one of the reasons for the development of diabetes. During the study of this disease, scientists have found out that a patient with type 2 diabetes reacts to psychoemotional stress by a well-defined and specific change in metabolism, which they called the "diabetic profile" of metabolism. When studying the reaction of the metabolism to the stress, it was found that about 8% of young healthy people aged 20 - 23 years who did not have any signs of a violation of carbohydrate metabolism showed exactly the same changes as if they were already ill with diabetes mellitus. The further examination showed that approximately 70% of them had the relatives suffering this disease. The obtained data allowed the scientists to assume that the genetics of the organism really lie in the basis of type 2 diabetes, but the predisposition to this disease is realized not by one specific but by a complex of genes responsible for the stress-resistance of the organism. Considering that today about 7-9% of the world's population have diabetes mellitus Type 2, scientists have concluded that healthy participants in the experiment are those patients who have a high risk of the disease progress with age.
To identify such persons, it is enough to check the composition of exhaled air before and after induced psychoemotional stress. For this purpose, there is used a special instrument - a metabolobiograph, which analyzes the state of metabolism in the human body by exhaled air.
“Our method is very simple. For diagnosis, there is only needed a metabolologist and a specialist trained by our technique. Unlike many other methods of diagnosing susceptibility to diabetes, it is cheap and available for use in mass screening programs. It does not require the collection of blood or other biomaterials for the analysis on expensive equipment. The study takes about 15 - 20 minutes,” says Professor Pavel Chernysh. “Identification of such a reaction to stress already at a young age allow us to include a person to the group with a risk for this disease and carry out a number of preventive measures (vocational guidance, weight control, number of pregnancies and others) that will significantly reduce the probability of diabetes in subsequent years. As a result, there will be fewer patients with diabetes mellitus which signifies that the government expenditures for their treatment will also decrease. This technology requires further research before the mass introduction.